Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetes cannot be cured, but it can often be managed with proper medical care, diet, and regular exercise.
Everybody benefits from regular exercise. If you have diabetes or are at a risk of diabetes it plays an even more important role in keeping you healthy.
For a person with diabetes exercise helps:
Insulin to work better, which will improve your diabetes management
You control your weight
Lower your blood pressure
Reduce your risk of heart disease
Regular exercise is an important part of your diabetes management. If you are on insulin, it will help your insulin to work more efficiently and assist with your blood glucose control. However, if your diabetes is poorly controlled (i.e. fasting blood glucose levels greater than 14 mmol/L and urinary ketones) then it is best to avoid exercise until your blood glucose has settled. Exercise in these circumstances can actually elevate blood glucose and increase ketone production.
People with diabetes are encouraged to exercise regularly for better blood sugar control and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
The reason for this is that muscles which are working, use more glucose than those that are resting.
Muscle movement leads to greater sugar uptake by muscle cells and lower blood sugar levels. Exercise is the common term used to describe any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
A gym can help with weight loss as well as help you make new friends
A gym is an ideal setting for people with diabetes who want to lead a healthy and active lifestyle.
By going to the gym, you can access a wide range of high-end sports equipment to help you stay healthy and achieve your fitness goals.
They also have the benefit of being in an environment where they can socialise with others, get advice on weight loss, strength building and blood glucose control.
Warm up exercise
Body weight Exercise
Elastic Band Exercise
Swiss Ball Exercise
Medicine Ball Exercise
Cool down exercise
Personal training(One to one Training)
Group exercise classes
Weight loss program
Weight gain program
Special attention to diabetes patients
Loosen up. Pin it.
Get your heart pumping. Increased heart thumping warms up your muscles and switches on your nervous system.
Do some dynamic stretches. Stretch your arm muscles, but don’t hold it.
Practice. Move through the exercises planned for that day’s workout at a lower intensity.
Treadmill, Elliptical, Cycle – These machines were originally designed to minimize the impact on the knees and hips but still allow a great workout.
Whole Body Exercises
One Legged Cross Body Chops
Shuttle Pass Sprints
Two-Handed Hammer Throw
Knee to chest
Elevated Leg Curl Up
Side Bridge Crunch
1 Leg Supine Elevated Bridge
2 Leg Supine Elevated Bridge
2 Point Side Bridge
3 Point Dynamic Bridge
Bird Dog Extension
Dynamic Side Bridge
Face Up Supine Bridge
Leg Up Supine Bridge
Prone 2 Point Bridge
T-Stabilization Lockout Hyperextension
Lower Back Stretch
Lower Back Twist
Standing Cat Stretch
Kneeling Biceps Stretch
Hands Down Calf Stretch
Standing Calf Stretch
Behind Back Chest Stretch
Palms Up Forearms Stretch
Hip Flexors Active
Lying Hip Stretch
Prone Hip Stretch
Lying One Leg Hamstrings
Seated Hurdler Stretch
Seated Spread Eagle
Inner Thigh Exercises
Seated Inner Thigh
Standing Inner Thigh
Neck Circle Rolls
Lying Side Quadriceps Stretch
Prone Quadriceps Stretch
Standing Quadriceps Stretch
Seated Torso Reach
Seated Trunk Twist
Standing Torso Reach
Cool-down activities focus on slow movements and stretching, allowing the heart rate to return to normal after vigorous activity. Use full-body stretches to work on improved flexibility
Precautions to take if you take insulin or oral diabetes medication:
If your blood sugar level is less than 5.5 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) prior to exercise, take a carbohydrate snack prior to beginning the exercise.
If your blood sugar level is higher than 5.5 mmol/l (100 mg/dl) before exercise, it may not be necessary to take a carbohydrate snack before a light exercise session, but you may need extra carbohydrates during or following the exercise. Check your blood to see if your blood sugar dips below 4 mmol/l (70 mg/dl) following exercise.
If you experience hypoglycemia, follow the Carbohydrate Treatment guidelines. Follow up with your doctor. You may be advised to lower your medication on days you exercise if your blood sugar levels are well-controlled and usually within the target range.
For long duration and/or high-intensity exercise sessions, have extra carbohydrate snacks during the activity. An additional carbohydrate is suggested each 30 to 60 minutes of exercise (e.g. soccer game, hiking, biking, skating, etc).
Always carry a fast-acting carbohydrate food such as glucose tablets when exercising in the event blood sugar drops too low and hypoglycemia symptoms develop during exercise.
Wear a form of ID, which identifies you as having diabetes, particularly if you are exercising alone so that others may help you appropriately in the event of something unexpected happening.
As most exercise is done standing up, it is important to ensure that you are wearing adequate footwear. Foot problems can occur when:
Shoes fit poorly
Socks are not worn or are not absorbent
Friction or pressure points develop on feet
Therefore, in order to prevent foot problems, you should:
Inspect feet daily for signs of friction or pressure sores.
Speak with your physician, podiatrist or diabetes educator about proper foot care procedures.
Buy shoes which are well-made for the type of exercise you do and which fit you.
Consult a shoe retailer who specializes in exercise footwear.
Buy cotton, absorbent socks.
Hyperglycemia (or high blood sugar) can occur when:
Too little insulin is available to counteract the liver’s production of sugar which is stimulated by exercise hormones.
Too little insulin is available to assist glucose enter into muscle cells quickly during exercise.
Too much fat is utilized for exercise because sugar is unable. Ketones levels rise in the blood.
Therefore, precautions to take against hyperglycemia include not exercising if:
Your blood sugar is above 13 mmol/l (240 mg/dl), especially with a positive urine test for ketonuria, as exercising could result in higher blood sugars and lead to diabetes ketoacidosis.
Follow your doctor’s advice to lower blood sugar before recommencing exercise.
You are sick with flu, infection or another illness that is worsening blood sugar control.
If your blood sugar level is above 13 mmol/l (240 mg/dl) but less than 17 mmol/l (300 mg/dl), limit your activity to moderate intensity (walking, light biking), rather than a high-intensity exercise (running, weightlifting, tennis).
People with heart conditions, in particular, should consult with their doctor before commencing an exercise regimen.
Dr Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre advises people with existing heart conditions to avoid strenuous activity such as lifting weights, press ups or exercise which could result in chest pains.
As well as strengthening the cardiovascular system and the body’s muscles, many people exercise to keep fit, lose or maintain a healthy weight, sharpen their athletic skills, or purely for enjoyment. Frequent and regular physical exercise is recommended for people of all ages as it boosts the immune system and helps protect against conditions such as:
Type 2 diabetes
Cancer and other major illnesses
In fact, it is known to cut your risk of major chronic illnesses/diseases by up to 50% and reduce your risk of early death by up to 30%.
Other health benefits of exercising on a regular basis include:
Improves mental health
Enhances sleep quality and energy levels
Cuts risk of stress and depression
Protects against dementia and Alzheimer’s disease
Furthermore, exercise is free, can be carried out anywhere at any time and has an immediate effect on your health.
Aerobic activity at moderate intensity basically means exercising at a level that raises your heart rate and makes you sweat. This includes a multitude of sports. For example:
Playing doubles tennis or badminton
Cutting the grass, cleaning your home and other daily chores such as shopping don’t count towards your 150 minutes of weekly exercise as advances in technology have made these activities far less demanding on the body than for previous generations, who were naturally more active through work and manual labour. However, the less time you spend sitting down, the better it will be for your health. Sedentary behaviour, such as sitting or lying down for long periods, increases your risk of weight gain and obesity, which in turn, may also up your risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and diabetes.
If you have type II diabetes, you should aim for about 30 minutes of exercise at least five days a week, according to the Dr.Mohan’s Diabetes Specialities Centre. However, if you’re like many newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, you may not have exercised in a long time if ever.
If that’s the case, it’s fine to start slow and work up. In fact, until you get a feel for how exercise affects your blood sugar (and until you get your doctor’s clearance), it might be a good idea for most newly diagnosed patients to take it slow.
There are some exercise precautions which people with diabetes must take; however, when done safely, exercise is a valuable aid to optimal health.
Exercise precautions are designed to help people with diabetes avoid problems which can result from unwise exercise choices.
Hypoglycemia can occur if a person who is taking blood sugar lowering medication has:
Eaten too little carbohydrate (fruit, milk, starch) relative to the exercise.
Taken too much medication relative to the exercise
The combined effect of food and medication imbalances relative to the exercise
Those who do not take diabetes medication do not need to take these precautions. Drink plenty of water before, during and after exercise to stay well-hydrated
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